231 All the churches here in which elders were appointed by the apostles had been established within less than one year. Hence, the elders appointed in these churches could not have been fully mature. They must have been considered elders because they were comparatively the most mature among the believers. They were not voted in by their congregations but were appointed by the apostles according to their maturity of life in Christ. They were charged by the apostles to care for the leadership and shepherding in their churches (see notes 21 in 1 Tim. 3 and 33 in 1 Pet. 5).